Underscoring the importance of maintaining long-term investments in basic research and creating dynamic research and development environments to create basic knowledge, to ensure the protection of intellectual property rights, to preserve the value of innovation resulting from joint cooperation, to ensure the smooth application of new technologies and to promote and develop the human resources of the next generation in the scientific and technological field, the JHLC is obliged to do much to promote cooperation in technology with military applications more by standards than by law. Nevertheless, there are limited opportunities, as he might imagine, to do more. At present, it focuses primarily on the “limits of science,” somewhat on “capacity building” within the Alliance, much less on “strategic intentions” or efforts to maximize “duline science.” 45 The 1988 U.S.-Japan S-T agreement is limited to “peaceful cooperation activities.” Many officials in both countries see a need and a chance for the JHLC to play a greater role in improving the coordination of bilateral S-T cooperation with their respective national strategies, particularly with regard to dual-use technologies46. To re-examine the bilateral agreement: on the offensive side, the United States and Japan should consider updating their 1988 cooperation agreement between S-T in order to address two imbalances, namely insufficient coordination between the public and private sectors for R and private investments; D and insufficient flexibility in dual-use technologies. In order to coordinate investments in research and development, D, a version of the JUSSTIC approach could be adopted and supported by annual funds or a joint foundation. In the meantime, dual-use technology will remain politically sensitive in Japan in the near future, but it should be possible to respect this reality while expanding mutual fertilization of ideas to allow for a follow-up to a separate path of bilateral cooperation (for example. B by a kind of transfer between the bilateral cooperation and the Forum of Systems and Technologies). 104 Michael Brown and Pavneet Singh, China`s technology transfer strategy: how Chinese investments in emerging technology enable a strategic competitor to access the jewels of the U.S. innovation crown (Washington, DC: Government Executive Defense Innovation Unit Experimental, January 2018), admin.govexec.com/media/diux_chinatechnologytransferstudy_jan_2018_(1), .pdf. Allied governments must create an appropriate policy framework to achieve these goals, again through bilateral coordination and multilateral action. A useful framework would provide some support for strengthening international institutional relations (including staff exchanges, reciprocal access to certain high-quality research resources and bundled funding for these assets and related test benches) between relevant national laboratories and relevant universities and research organizations in key strategic areas.