At a recent global climate change conference in Kyoto, Japan, the Canadian delegation promised to significantly reduce the country`s greenhouse gas emissions. Kent argued that “the Kyoto Protocol does not cover the world`s two largest emitters, the United States and China, and therefore cannot work.” In 2010, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not accept new Kyoto commitments. Canada is the only country to reject the Kyoto agreement. Mr. Kent argued that Canada, unable to meet the targets, had to avoid penalties of $14 billion for failing to meet its targets.  This decision met with widespread international support.  Finally, compliance costs have been reduced by 20 times.  Countries for which emissions are not covered by the Kyoto Protocol (the United States and China) have the highest emissions, which are responsible for 41% of the Kyoto Protocol. China`s emissions increased by more than 200% between 1990 and 2009.  The Executive Council of Canada[Notes 3] Vice-President John Dillon argued that a new Kyoto extension would not be effective because many countries, not just Canada, are not on track to meet their 1997 Kyoto emissions reduction commitments.  Under the Kyoto Protocol, developed countries have promised to reduce their annual hydrocarbon emissions by an average of 5.2% by 2012. This figure would represent about 29% of global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the objectives depended on the country concerned.
This meant that each nation had a different goal to achieve by this year. Members of the European Union (EU) have pledged to reduce emissions by 8%, while the United States and Canada are committed to reducing their emissions by 7% and 6% respectively by 2012. Canada was involved in the negotiations that led to the Kyoto Protocol in 1997.  The Liberal government, which signed the agreement in 1997, ratified it in Parliament in 2002.  Canada`s Kyoto target was an overall reduction of 6% in greenhouse gas emissions by 2012 compared to 1990 with 461 megatonnes (Mt) (GC) in 1994).  [Notes 1] Despite the signing of the agreement, greenhouse gas emissions increased by about 24.1% between 1990 and 2008. In 2011, Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper withdrew Canada from the Kyoto Protocol. Debates on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Canada are influenced by the nature of the relationship between national, provincial, territorial and municipal jurisdictions.